Background of Study
In this section, you begin your presentation with the explanation of the gap between expectations and reality in the field of education (in the area) you are studying, both theoretical and practical gaps underlying the problem under study. In the background, you (as supporting ideas) should also briefly describe the related theory, and/or research findings, and/or conclusions and discussion of scientific seminars or experience / personal observation, which should closely link to the subject-matter studied. This will clarify your reasons for doing the research; and such reasons need to be stated in a clear statement. So, the selected problem for investigation gets a solid platform.
Problem of Study
The formulation of the problem is an attempt to state explicitly the questions you want to resolve. The formulation of the problem is a complete and detailed statement about the scope of the problem to be investigated. Problem formulation is prepared in brief, with solidity and clarity. A good formulation of the problem will reveal the variables studied, the type or nature of the relationship between these variables, and subjects. Furthermore, the formulation of the problem has to be tested empirically, in the sense that data collection can be made to answer the questions put forward. The problem can be formulated in several forms, among others: in the form of a single question, and in the form of general questions followed by specific questions.
The purpose of the research should be related to the status of the research problem. The purpose of the study is the sentence which indicates the existence of something obtained after completion of study. The content and formulation of research objectives refer to the content and formulation of research problems. The difference lies in the way how you formulate it. Research problems are formulated using squib sentence, while the research objectives are stated in the form of statements. The number of items of research objectives should be adjusted to the number of items of research questions.
This section contains the reasons about the feasibility of the problem studied, or the importance of research, especially for the development of science and/or practical knowledge (e.g., for teachers, students, education practitioners, etc.) or implementation of development in a broad sense. The reasons suggested in this section should be judged as a feasible issue to be researched.
A study can be managed properly if there is a restriction on the achievement of objectives. Restriction is made by limiting the scope of the study area. For example, your research should concern with the use of cooperative learning. In this approach, there are several methods (e.g., think-pair-share, example non example, etc.) but limit your studies in one or more specific methods, for example: x1 and x2. This does not mean that you should not use more than one method in the learning process. Use of one or more than one method in a study depends on the purpose of the research itself.